PuppetDB: Release notes

PuppetDB 6.22.1

Released September 14 2022

Security fixes

  • The org.postgresql/postgresql driver has been updated to version 42.4.1 to address CVE-2022-31197, which is an SQL injection risk that according to the CVE report, can only be exploited if an attacker controls the database to the extent that they can adjust relevant tables to have "malicious" column names. (PE-34250)


April Murphy, Jonathan Newman, Rob Browning, and Stel Abrego

PuppetDB 6.22.0

Released August 2 2022

New features and improvements

  • Query logging has been improved when log-queries is set to true. Now queries are logged with their UUID before they are parsed which makes debugging easier when there are PQL parsing issues. (PDB-5482)

Bug fixes

  • Fixed a bug that was introduced in 6.19.0 and 7.10.1 that caused valid queries using the ~> operator inside of an extract clause to fail. The patch also fixes a UX issue where providing the wrong amount of arguments in a ~> clause would result in a cryptic error. (PE-33977)

  • Fixed a bug that was introduced in 6.21.0 and 7.10.1 which caused upgrade failures with PostgreSQL hot standbys. The method of disabling the jit has been changed to avoid the problem. (PDB-5483)


Arjen Zonneveld, Austin Blatt, Jon-Paul Lindquist, Jonathan Newman, Maggie Dreyer, Rob Browning, and Stel Abrego

PuppetDB 6.21.0

Released April 12 2022

New features and improvements

  • PuppetDB will no longer run a garbage collection on startup. This may substantially reduce the time required before PuppetDB begins accepting commands and queries. (PDB-5422)

  • PuppetDB should require much less time and memory when parsing some PQL queries, , for example queries including many or clauses like nodes {x or y or ...}. Previously 5000 clauses could not be parsed with an 8GB heap, and much smaller queries still required exorbitant amounts of memory and CPU time. (PDB-5260)

  • The fact path GC now runs no more than once every 24 hours by default. This should be much less expensive in most cases, in exchange for a potentially slower response to the disappearance of individual fact paths. (PDB-5423)

  • PuppetDB will no longer process incoming commands during the initial sync. This may allow the sync to finish more quickly, decreasing startup time (Puppet Enterprise only). (PDB-5386)

  • Ubuntu 20.04, RedHat 8 (FIPS) (Puppet Enterprise only), and SUSE Linux Enterprise 15 are now supported.

Bug fixes

  • PostgreSQL introduced a query JIT in version 11, and enabled it by default in 12. At the moment, it causes some queries to be dramatically more expensive, and PuppetDB was affected, so it now disables the JIT for all of its queries. (PDB-5452)


Austin Blatt, Rob Browning, and Stel Abrego

PuppetDB 6.20.2

Released February 9 2022

Security fixes

This releases contains a fix for CVE-2022-21724 (PDB-5449), a pgjdbc exploit. In order to use this exploit, an attacker must have permission to create JDBC connections via JDBC URL's while the application is running. Since PuppetDB only creates JDBC connections internally from configuration upon startup, this CVE is of very low risk to our users. In order for a PuppetDB user to be successfully attacked, the malicious actor would have to first acquire at least the user privileges of the PuppetDB user. Due to the CVE's high severity rating, we believe it's appropriate to release a fix regardless.


Austin Blatt, Rob Browning, and Stel Abrego

PuppetDB 6.20.0

Released January 20 2022

New features and improvements

  • Improved performance of the "deactivate node" command. (PDB-5378)

  • Improved performance of the fact-contents endpoint. Testing against a database of 10,000 mocked nodes, there was an observed 84% decrease in time taken to complete a difficult query. This optimization has a known issue with PostgreSQL JIT compilation. (PDB-5259)

Bug Fixes

  • Fixed a bug with HA sync (Puppet Enterprise only) regarding /pdb/query/v4/<entity>/<certname> style queries that caused replicas to falsely report that the sync transferred 0 nodes. (PDB-5381)

  • Fixed a bug that caused reports to be potentially garbage collected sooner than the configured reports-ttl due to a time rounding error. (PDB-5351)

  • Fixed error handling issues in the command endpoint. Previously, providing a certname that was an empty string or null would cause PuppetDB to crash and prevent prior restarts from exiting maintenance mode. Upon other errors such as missing required parameters, the command endpoint would return a status 500 HTML page or cryptic internal error data. This patch ensures the command endpoint will always return a standard { "error": <description> } JSON response upon any ingestion error and ingestion errors at the command endpoint will not cause PuppetDB to crash. (PDB-5282)

  • Fixed an issue with queries that filter using arrays when the configuration option log-queries is enabled. (PDB-5364)


Austin Blatt, Rob Browning, and Stel Abrego

PuppetDB 6.19.1

Released November 9 2021

Security fixes

This release is part of both a Puppet Platform and PE release that resolves CVEs, see Puppet's CVE announcements for more information.

Upgrade cautions

Puppet Agent 6.25.1 (PUP-11209) introduced a new catalog resource field in order to resolve CVE-2021-27025. This field was not handled properly by older versions of PuppetDB and will result in catalogs not being stored in PuppetDB. Before upgrading any agents in your installation to 6.25.1, you must first upgrade your PuppetDB(s) to this version. (PDB-5338)


Austin Blatt, Rob Browning, Sebastian Miclea, and Stel Abrego

PuppetDB 6.19.0

New features and improvements

  • Adds a new optional query field origin that allows users to attach an identifier to their query, which will assist with debugging any query-related issues. (PDB-5216)

  • Enabled TLS v1.3 by default, connections will choose 1.3 over 1.2 when supported by both sides. (PDB-5255)

  • On the resource_events_resource_*z partial has the multicolumn resource_events_resource_timestamp_xxxxxz index (timestamp, title and type) that is limited to 2712 bytes for postgres versions up to 11. Starting with postgres 12, the index size was reduced by 8 bytes. Having resource events that exceed this limit will cause PDB to fail to insert the row without too many info about what and where is the resource that caused the error. This PR adds extra logs with details to allow easier debugging. There are two messages printed, when the index is close to the limit (between 2500 and 2704) and when the limit is exceeded (over 2704). (PDB-5135)

Bug fixes

  • If a query with an extract clause contains a misspelled option, the clause is completely ignored resulting in a misleading response body.

    ["from", "reports",
      ["extract", [["function", "count", "certname"]],
        ["null?", "type", false],
        ["groupy_by", "certname"]]]

    will return all the reports because the extract cause will be ignored ( it contains groupy_by instead of group_by). Instead of returning nil for a malformed extract clause (when converting the query to sql plan), try to identify the misspelled part and log an appropriate error message. (PDB-4731)

  • When querying for trusted facts on inventory endpoint with a query like:

    inventory[] { trusted.extensions.foo = "bar"}

    instead of facts.trusted.extensions.foo, the index wasn't hit. The change introduced by this ticket ensures that an index is hit if the query is made with just trusted.[fact]. (PDB-4985)


Austin Blatt, Oana Tanasoiu, Rob Browning, and Sebastian Miclea

PuppetDB 6.18.0

Released July 20 2021

Bug fixes

  • The to_string function should now be allowed in facts and fact-contents query fields. (PDB-5104)

  • Queries that include a limit, offset, or order_by, in a subquery that uses from like this:

    ["from", "nodes",
     ["in", "certname",
      ["from", "reports", ["extract", "certname"],
       ["limit", 1]]]]

    should no longer crash with an error that looks like this:

    'type' is not a queryable object for nodes...


  • The delete-reports subcommand now restarts the puppetdb service after deleting reports. (PDB-5142)


Andrei Filipovici, Austin Blatt, Ethan J. Brown, Filipovici-Andrei, Heston Hoffman, Maggie Dreyer, Oana Tanasoiu, Rob Browning, and Sebastian Miclea

PuppetDB 6.17.0

Released June 24 2021.

This release contains a fix for CVE-2021-27021. As part of the mitigation of this CVE you should create and configure a read only user. If you are using Puppet Enterprise, or you are managing your postgres database using the Open Source module (version 7.9.0+) the read only user will be configured automatically.

Related patches, addressing the vulnerability:

A patch to ensure PuppetDB logs if the query user's permissions are insufficiently restricted:

Security fixes

  • Fixed an issue where someone with the ability to query PuppetDB could arbitrarily write, update, or delete data CVE-2021-27021 PDB-5138

New features and improvements

  • Significantly reduced the memory usage by the puppetdb terminus to process commands. PDB-5107

  • Some command processing operations should require less work and require fewer round trips to the database. PDB-5128

  • If the read-only user has database permissions that it does not need, PuppetDB will log errors. PDB-5145

Bug Fixes

  • (PE only) Fixed an issue causing unnecessary factset sync PDB-5021

  • Lock timeouts will be parsed correctly now. Previously, if a lock timeout had been set either via the experimental PDB_GC_DAILY_PARTITION_DROP_LOCK_TIMEOUT_MS variable, or other means, PuppetDB might fail to interpret the value correctly, and as a result, fail to prune older data correctly. (PDB-5141)

  • All reports can be queried by including type = "any" as a query filter. PDB-4766

  • The ssl-setup command (which is also invoked by the PuppetDB package installation scripts) should handle ssl-related filesystem permissions more carefully. Previously it might reset them when it shouldn't have, and/or leave them briefly with incorrect, potentially overly permissive values. PDB-2590

PuppetDB 6.16.1

Released 26 April 2021. The 6.16.0 tag was burned in order to update additional dependencies.

New features and improvements

  • Added a new query parameter explain that will return the query plan and actual run time statistics for the query. PDB-5055

  • Add ability to disable storage of resource events PDB-3635

Bug fixes

  • Fixed a bug in the ssl-setup command that would insert a duplicate setting into the jetty.ini config. PDB-5084

  • PuppetDB will no longer return HTML formatted stack traces from the API endpoint, now only the error message will be returned. The full error can still be found it the logs if needed. PDB-5063

  • Trailing characters after a query, which were usually from mismatched ] in an AST query, will no longer be ignored. Instead an error will be returned to alert the user to the potential error in their query. PDB-2488

PuppetDB 6.15.0

Released 24 February 2021

New features and improvements

  • Added two new users connection-migrator-username and connection-username in database.ini config file. The new users are used to establish connections to the database when the connection username is different from the database username (this is the case for managed PostgreSQL in Azure) PDB-4934

  • A new metric (:concurrent-depth), which counts the number of /cmd API requests that are waiting to write to the disk, was added. PDB-4268

  • A new metric (new-fact-time) was added under puppetlabs.puppetdb.storage. This metric measures the time it takes to persist facts for a never before seen certname. PDB-3418

  • The performance dashboard is now accessible on the HTTPS port. In PE, if the PuppetDB is using a certificate allowlist, users can authenticate their connection with an rbac token as a URL parameter. PDB-3159

PuppetDB 6.14.0

Released 9 February 2021

This release contains important security updates. See (PDB-5000).

New features and improvements

  • (PE only) PuppetDB will synchronize with another instance more efficiently now. Previously it would synchronize each entity (factsets, reports, etc.) incrementally, holding open PostgreSQL queries/transactions throughout the entire process, which could take a long time. Those transactions could substantially harm database performance, increase table fragmentation, and if entangled with something like pglogical, increase transient storage requirements (by blocking WAL log reclaimaton). Now instead, the queries should completed up-front, as quickly as possible. PDB-2420

  • Changed the index on certname for report table partitions to be an index on (certname, end_time) to improve performance of certain queries from the PE console. PDB-5003

  • The /metrics/v2 endpoint is now avaialble for external (non-localhost) connections, but requires authentication. This can be configured in a new configuration file auth.conf. PDB-4811

  • The optimize_drop_unused_joins query parameter can now optimize queries that contain a single count function. PDB-4984

  • Added a query bulldozer which is spawned during periodic GC when PuppetDB attempts to drop partitioned tables. The bulldozer will cancel any queries blocking the GC process from getting the AccessExclusiveLocks it needs in order to drop a partition. The PDB_GC_QUERY_BULLDOZER_TIMEOUT_MS setting allows users to disable the query-bulldozer if needed. PDB-4948

Bug fixes

  • Puppet Enterprise (PE) only: fixed an issue where PuppetDB wouldn't exit maintenance mode if garbage collection was disabled and sync was enabled. (PDB-4975)

  • Previously an attempt to stop (or restart) PuppetDB might appear to succeed, even though some of its components were actually still running. That's because PuppetDB wasn't actually waiting for some of the internal tasks to finish as had been expected. Now PuppetDB should block during stop or restart until all of the components have actually shut down. This issue is a likely contributor to some cases where PuppetDB appeared to restart/reload successfully, but sync never started working again. PDB-4974

  • PuppetDB no longer retries queries internally, suppressing some transient connection errors. Instead, it immediately returns an error code. You can restore the previous behavior by setting the PDB_USE_DEPRECATED_QUERY_STREAMING_METHOD environment variable. See the configuration information for further details. PDB-4962

  • PuppetDB won't hold an extra database connection open while generating query responses. Previously it would create and hold an extra connection open during the initial phase of the response. You can restore the previous behavior by setting the PDB_USE_DEPRECATED_QUERY_STREAMING_METHOD environment variable. See the configuration information for further details.

  • Various security fixes. (PDB-5000)

PuppetDB 6.13.1

Released 27 October 2020

Bug fixes

  • Puppet Enterprise (PE) only: serialized the initial garbage collection and the initial sync to prevent a deadlock. (PDB-4938)

PuppetDB 6.13.0

Released 20 October 2020

New features and improvements

  • PuppetDB can now log the AST and SQL corresponding to each incoming query when requested by the log-queries configuration option. (PDB-4834)

  • PuppetDB now only drops the oldest report or events partition during the normal, periodic garbage collection when there's more than one candidate. This decreases the length of time PuppetDB blocks operations since the drop attempts to acquire an exclusive lock on the entire table (i.e. reports, not just the partition), and so will block all subsequent access to that table until it finishes. (PDB-4901)

  • PuppetDB now unifies report and resource event clean up during a full garbage collection, instead of handling each in a separate transaction. This ensures it only waits on the exclusive lock to drop relevant event partitions once. (PDB-4902)

  • The fact path garbage collection process will now time out after 5 minutes by default if it cannot acquire the locks it requires. See the configuration information for further details. (PDB-4907)

  • SQL commands issued during an attempt to process a command (store a report, update a factset, etc.) will now time out after 10 minutes by default, causing the command to be retried or discarded. See the configuration information for further details. (PDB-4906)

  • PuppetDB can now detect when the inputs in a catalog have not changed with respect to the previous catalog, and avoid storing them again. (PDB-4895)

  • Some additional indexing has been added to the catalog inputs storage which should improve query performance. (PDB-4881)

  • The certificate-whitelist and facts-blacklist configuration options have been deprecated in favor of certificate-allowlist and facts-blocklist. See also: https://puppet.com/blog/removing-harmful-terminology-from-our-products (PDB-4872)

  • Puppet Enterprise (PE) only: by default, the sync entity-time-limit is now additionally enforced by interruption of the thread performing sync. See the configuration information for further details. (PDB-4909)

Bug fixes

  • The report and resource event garbage collections will now time out if they have to wait longer than 5 minutes (by default) to acquire the required table lock. This prevents them from blocking other related queries indefinitely, and prevents them from participating an any permanent deadlocks. See the configuration information for further details. (PDB-4903)

  • Puppet Enterprise (PE) only: PuppetDB sync now defers to the report and resource event garbage collections in order to avoid blocking their access to the locks they require. (PDB-4908)


Austin Blatt, Rob Browning, and Zak Kent

PuppetDB 6.12.0

Released 25 August 2020

New features

  • Adds support for Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

Bug fixes

  • Fixes an issue with the catalog duplication percent metric. This resulted in an error that prevented the dashboard from loading. PDB-4855

  • PQL queries now support the full range of 64-bit integers. Queries were previously limited to the range of 32-bit integers. PDB-4269


Austin Blatt, Maggie Dreyer, Rob Browning, and Zak Kent

PuppetDB 6.11.3

Released 4 August 2020

Bug fixes

  • Adds a missing index to all report partitions, improving report query performance. PDB-4832


Austin Blatt, Rob Browning, and Zak Kent

PuppetDB 6.11.2

Released 14 July 2020

Bug fixes

  • Fixes a bug that caused PuppetDB to use a CTE that materialized a large table, slowing queries. PDB-4769

Security fixes

  • Our dependency on org.postgresql/postgresql was upgraded to 42.2.14 to fix CVE-2020-13692. SEC-155 Note: PuppetDB does not store XML data types in PostgreSQL and should not be affected by this CVE.


Austin Blatt, Rob Browning, and Zak Kent

PuppetDB 6.11.1

This version is included in PE version 2019.8, but is not available as an open source offering. It includes a minor bug fix.

PuppetDB 6.11.0


We recommend upgrading to PostgreSQL 11 or greater before upgrading to PuppetDB 6.11.0. PostgreSQL 11 includes performance improvements which make adding a non-null column with a default value much faster and should significantly speed up the migration included in this release.

New features

  • Support for the storage of reports generated by Bolt Plans.

  • New report field type to specify the type of report submitted. Use agent for a Puppet agent run, or plan for a report of a plan's apply block.


  • Java 8, 9, and 10 have been deprecated. If these versions are used, PuppetDB will log a warning on startup. We recommend using Java 11 going forward.

  • Running PuppetDB with PostgreSQL 9.6 and 10 has been deprecated. Use PostgreSQL 11 instead.


Austin Blatt, Ethan J. Brown, Rob Browning, and Zak Kent

PuppetDB 6.10.1

Bug fixes

  • Fixed an issue that caused PuppetDB to fail to start on a database that had been in service before PuppetDB 4.0.0. PDB-4709

PuppetDB 6.10.0


This upgrade contains a long running migration to the reports table, which is typically the largest table in PuppetDB. Before upgrading to, or past, this version of PuppetDB, you are strongly encouraged to consider deleting your reports table. This will drastically shorten your upgrade time and get you back online much faster. If you are on a 5.2.z version, please upgrade to 5.2.14 or later and then take advantage of the delete-reports subcommand. Otherwise, consult the documentation on how to truncate the reports table manually.

New features

  • New delete-reports subcommand of the puppetdb command. The command stops the PuppetDB service and deletes all reports from the database. PDB-2398

  • New migrate configuration option in database settings. On startup, PuppetDB will only perform migrations if the value is true. If the value is false and a migration is necessary, PuppetDB will exit with an error. PDB-3751

  • New migrator-username option in database settings. You can now configure PuppetDB to attempt to prevent concurrent migrations or any access to a database that's in an unexpected format, either too new or too old. See Configuring PuppetDB for further information. PDB-4636 PDB-4637 PDB-4639

Bug fixes

  • Fixed an issue that would cause PE's sync to fail and never retry when one PuppetDB had been upgraded and the other had not. PE's sync will now fail and retry. PDB-4682


Austin Blatt, Ethan J. Brown, Rob Browning, Robert Roland, and Zak Kent

PuppetDB 6.9.1

New features

  • New initial-report-threshold configuration option in sync settings. On startup, PuppetDB will only sync reports newer than the threshold. Older reports will still be transferred on subsequent periodic syncs. PDB-3751

Resolved issue

  • To prevent information exposure as a result of CVE-2020-7943, the /metrics/v1 endpoints are disabled by default, and access to the /metrics/v2 endpoints are restricted to localhost.


Austin Blatt, Claire Cadman, and Morgan Rhodes

PuppetDB 6.9.0

New features and improvements

  • File indexing on catalog_resources. After you configure the PostgreSQL pg_trgm extension, PuppetDB adds an index to the file column on the catalog_resources table. PDB-4640

    Note: As of this release, running PostgreSQL without the pg_trgm extension is deprecated.

  • Improved queries. PuppetDB now has an experimental query optimizer that may be able to substantially decrease the cost and response time of some queries. PDB-4512

Bug fixes

  • Fixed an issue affecting PE installations where PuppetDB would fail to purge a deactivated node. PDB-4479

  • Database migrations could fail if there were long periods of inactivity in the resource_events, table and a client's server wasn't using UTC.PDB-4641


Austin Blatt, Heston Hoffman, Morgan Rhodes, Rob Browning, Robert Roland, and Zak Kent

PuppetDB 6.8.1

Bug fixes

  • Database migrations would fail for timezones with positive UTC offsets. PDB-4626


Austin Blatt, Heston Hoffman, Reinhard Vicinus, Robert Roland, and Zak Kent

PuppetDB 6.8.0

New features and improvements

  • New resource-events-ttl configuration parameter. Use the resource-events-ttl configuration parameter to automatically delete report events older than the specified time. The parameter rounds up to the nearest day. For example, 14h rounds up to 1d. For more information, see Configuring PuppetDB. PDB-2487

  • New delete command. Use the delete command to immediately delete the data associated with a certname. For more information, see Commands endpoint. PDB-3300

Bug fixes

  • Resolved an issue where an unreachable PostgreSQL server could cause PuppetDB to exhaust its connection pool, requiring a restart. PDB-4579


Austin Blatt, Ethan J. Brown, Manuel Laug, Molly Waggett, Morgan Rhodes, Nick Walker, Rob Browning, Robert Roland, and Zak Kent

PuppetDB 6.7.3

Bug fixes

  • This release includes various security improvements.


Austin Blatt, Ethan J. Brown, Heston Hoffman, Markus Opolka, Morgan Rhodes, and Nate Wolfe

PuppetDB 6.7.2

Bug fixes

  • Fixed an issue that caused PuppetDB to shut down if the initial Postgres connection failed. PuppetDB now retries the connection if it fails.


Austin Blatt, Ethan J. Brown, Heston Hoffman, Morgan Rhodes, Nate Wolfe, Rob Browning, Robert Roland, and Zak Kent

PuppetDB 6.7.1

Bug fixes

  • Fixed an issue where PuppetDB terminated a migration with a Postgres exception if standard_conforming_strings was not set to true. PuppetDB now verifies the setting before checking if any migrations are necessary. PDB-4509

  • Fixed a bug that prevented command size metrics from being recorded and the max-command-size config option from working properly. PDB-4502

  • This release restores the cipher suites required to connect to Puppet Server using TLS versions TLSv1.0 and TLSv1.1. PDB-4513


Austin Blatt, Eric Griswold, Ethan J. Brown, Heston Hoffman, Molly Waggett, Robert Roland, Scot Kreienkamp, Vadym Chepkov, and Zak Kent

PuppetDB 6.7.0

New features and improvements

  • Debian 10 support - PuppetDB packages are now available for Debian 10. These packages require Java 11 to be installed, rather than Java 8. PDB-4469

  • New ignored metric. The ignored metric tracks the number of obsolete commands since the last restart. For more on the ignored metric, see Metrics endpoint. PDB-4278

  • Return a specific fact or resource paramater with inventory and resources endpoints. You can now use dot notation with inventory and resources endpoints to return a specific fact or resource parameter instead of the entire JSON file PDB-2634.

    For examples of using dot notation in PQL and AST, see the following:

Bug fixes

  • Fixed an issue where PQL queries with dot notation required an extra space to terminate the dotted field. For example, inventory[]{ facts.os.family="Debian" } would fail because PuppetDB parsed the = operator as part of the dotted field. PDB-3284

PuppetDB 6.6.0

Bug fixes

  • A change in the puppetdb-termini package for 6.5.0 broke SSL connections that did not use Puppet's CA. This fix adds the verify_client_certificate configuration option. By default, verify_client_certificate only allows SSL connections authenticated by the Puppet CA. When set to false, it allows the use of other SSL connections. PDB-4487

  • Fixed an issue where package upgrades on CentOS 6 would sometimes fail when upgrading from older versions of PuppetDB (for example, 5.2) to more recent versions (for example, 6.3+). PDB-4373


Austin Blatt, Craig Watson, Ethan J. Brown, Heston Hoffman, Nate Wolfe, Rob Browning, Robert Roland, and Zak Kent

PuppetDB 6.5.0

New features and improvements

  • New experimental catalog-input-contents endpoint. Use the catalog-input-contents endpoint to query for the most recent catalog inputs that PuppetDB has received for any nodes. (PDB-4371

  • Submit inputs to a catalog. PuppetDB can now optionally store "inputs", such as Hiera keys, during catalog compilation. See the command's wire format for more information on how to submit them. PDB-4372

Bug fixes

  • We've updated the default auto-vacuum settings for several tables which PuppetDB was vacuuming more frequently than neccessary. These changes will apply once at the next upgrade. PDB-3745


Austin Blatt, Ethan J. Brown, Heston Hoffman, Josh Partlow, Nate Wolfe, Nick Walker, Patrick Carlisle, Rob Browning, and Robert Roland

PuppetDB 6.4.0

Bug fixes

  • This bug affects Puppet Enterprise (PE) only. After a restart or downtime, PuppetDB did not sync its package inventory, resulting in PuppetDB nodes with desynced fact hashes. PDB-4266


Austin Blatt, Ethan J. Brown, Jean Bond, Markus Opolka, Morgan Rhodes, Nate Wolfe, Rob Browning, Robert Roland, and Zak Kent