February 5, 2019

How to Deploy an Application with Puppet Bolt

Ecosystems & Integrations
How to & Use Cases

You've been iterating on some code and finally have that new feature working. You submit a Pull Request, there are a few comments that you address quickly, then the PR gets merged. Now it's time for deployment. 

In this blog, I'll explain how to deploy an application using Puppet Bolt step-by-step.

Table of Contents

What Does it Mean to Deploy an Application?

Deploying an application is a process that installs, configures, updates, and makes software (applications) available for use.

How to Deploy an Application with Bolt

Download the Right Tools

At Encore Technologies, we use a tool called StackStorm for orchestrating our automation workflows. StackStorm is an event-driven automation platform that we use to integrate the best-of-breed tools across the DevOps landscape. These integrations are possible using StackStorm's plugin mechanism called packs (short for Packages). Packs are Git repos that contain code written in a variety of different languages: bash/sh, PowerShell, Python, anything executable, and Orquesta workflows (YAML).

Actions are pieces of code that can perform arbitrary automation or remediation tasks in your environment. They can be written in any programming language to do just about anything such as making API calls or invoking external tools like Bolt, Puppet, Terraform, Packer, etc.

When an action invokes an external tool, it is necessary to deploy the tool-specific code alongside a pack. Here are a few examples of external tools we use and where the code for those tools gets deployed:

  • Puppet/Bolt (/etc/puppetlabs/code)
  • Terraform (/opt/terraform)
  • Packer (/opt/packer)
  • Many others are available, check out the StackStorm Exchange

Deploy Packs

From a high-level, pack deployment consists of the following steps:

  • Clone Git repos
  • Create a deployment archive
  • Copy the archive to the StackStorm host
  • Extract the archive
  • Put automation code in its proper spot
  • Register packs with StackStorm

There are two nodes in this process: the Bolt control node where the deployment is triggered from and the StackStorm node(s) to which the code will be deployed. Our Bolt control node is either our Jenkins server or a developer's laptop. The Bolt plan is initiated from the control node where it does some prep work, copies the files over to the StackStorm nodes, and then performs the deployment steps on those nodes.

A graphic displaying how to deploy an app with Bolt with a pack flow from a Bolt Control Node to various StackStorm nodes and other tools like Puppet, Terraform, and more.

Clone Git Repos to Interact with Other Tools

In order for us to deploy code, we need to have the code first. Logically, the first step in the process is cloning all of the Git repos we need for our deployment. These Git repos contain code for interacting with other tools such as Puppet, Bolt, Terraform, Packer, etc.

Use the following plan to clone the Git repos:

plan encore_st2::clone_repo(
  TargetSpec $nodes,
  String $path,
  String $url,
  String $repo,
  String $revision = undef,
) {
  $path_abs = encore_st2::join_path(encore_st2::resolve_path($path), $repo)
  $res = apply($nodes) {
    vcsrepo { $path_abs:
      ensure     => present,
      provider   => git,
      source     => $url,
      revision   => $revision,
      submodules => true,
  return $res

In this plan we utilize the vcsrepo forge module in an apply block. This saves us the hassle of having to artisanally craft the correct git command. You may ask why we love Bolt? It's because we can reuse all of the awesome modules from the Forge!

This code clones our Git repos on our Bolt control node, in the extern/ directory, and now we have all of the code needed to perform a deployment.

Create an Archive of All Your Deployment Files

Next we need to archive all of the various files we need for the deployment:

plan encore_st2::pkg_build(
  Hash $config,
  String $release,
  TargetSpec $nodes,
) {
  $pwd = encore_st2::pwd()

  # list of files under git control
  $ls_files_result = run_command("pushd $pwd &>/dev/null; git ls-files", $nodes)
  $ls_files = split($ls_files_result.first.value['stdout'], '\n')

  # list of extern/ directories (bolt, puppet, terraform, etc)
  $extern_files_result = run_command("pushd $pwd &>/dev/null; find extern/ -mindepth 1 -maxdepth 1 -type d",
  $extern_files = split($extern_files_result.first.value['stdout'], '\n')

  # combine files
  $files = concat($ls_files, $extern_files)
  $files_str = join($files, ' ')

  # create archive
  $archive = "/tmp/${release}.tar.gz"
  $archive_result = run_task('encore_st2::tar', $nodes,
                             pwd     => $pwd,
                             archive => $archive,
                             files   => $files_str)
  return $archive

This plan uses git ls-files to list all of the files in our repo (all of the StacKStorm Packs) and combines it with all of the external tool code that we cloned into the extern/ directory. The files list is then used to create a .tar.gz archive in the /tmp directory.

encore_st2::tar task:

  "description": "Create a tar archive",
  "parameters": {
    "pwd": {
      "type": "String",
      "description": "pwd when creating the archive"
    "archive": {
      "type": "String",
      "description": "Name of the archive file"
    "files": {
      "type": "String",
      "description": "List of files to put in the archive"
if [ ! -z "$PT_pwd" ]; then
  pushd "$PT_pwd" &> /dev/null

if [ -e "$PT_archive" ]; then
  rm -f "$PT_archive"

tar -zcf "$PT_archive" $PT_files

Copy the Archive

The archvie now needs to make its way to the StackStorm nodes, to do this we utilize the built-in upload_file()function.

upload_file($pkg_path, $pkg_dst, $nodes)

Extract the Archive

Extracting the archive is as simple as running a tar command:

run_command("tar -xvf ${pkg_dst} -C ${release_dst}", $nodes)

Place Automation Code in the Right Directories

Next we need to put the code for our external different tools in the correct directories so those tools can utilize them effectively. We do this using symlinks (using the process below), but we could also copy the code right into the desired directory.

For Puppet/Bolt code we create a symlink from /opt/encore/stackstorm/current/extern/puppet to /etc/puppetlabs/code/environments/production.

For Packer code we create a symlink from /opt/encore/stackstorm/current/extern/packer to /opt/packer.

  # create puppet symlink
  if $cfg['puppet'] {
    # /opt/encore/stackstorm/current/extern/puppet
    $puppet_path = encore_st2::join_path($stackstorm_path,
    # /etc/puppetlabs/code/environments/production
    $puppet_dir = $cfg['stackstorm_puppet_dir']
    apply($nodes) {
      file { $puppet_dir:
        ensure => link,
        target => $puppet_path,

  # create packer symlink
  if $cfg['packer_repo'] {
    # /opt/encore/stackstorm/current/extern/puppet
    $packer_path = encore_st2::join_path($stackstorm_path,
    # /opt/packer
    $packer_dir = $cfg['stackstorm_packer_dir']
    apply($nodes) {
      file { $packer_dir:
        ensure => link,
        target => $packer_path,

Register Packs with StackStorm

In the final step of our deployment, we need to move the StackStorm pack code into the directory where StackStorm expects (/opt/stackstorm/packs), then register the packs (StackStorm loads the data from the filesystem into its database) and finally setup a Python virtualenv for each pack:

plan encore_st2::pack_install_nested(
  Hash $config,
  Array[Hash] $packs,
  TargetSpec $nodes,
) {
  $stackstorm_path = $config['stackstorm_path']
  $stackstorm_packs_dir = '/opt/stackstorm/packs'

  # create paths for the packs
  $packs_data = $packs.map |$p| {
      'path_src' => encore_st2::join_path($stackstorm_path, 'current', $p['src']),
      'path_dst' => encore_st2::join_path($stackstorm_packs_dir, $p['name']),
      'name'     => $p['name'],

  # copy packs into proper directory
  # set proper permissions on pack directories
  $res = apply($nodes) {
    $packs_data.each |$p| {
      file { $p['path_dst'] :
        ensure  => directory,
        recurse => true,
        source  => "file:///${p['path_src']}",
        group   => 'st2packs',

  # register packs
  $packs_path_dst = $packs_data.map |$p| {$p['path_dst']}
  $packs_path_dst_str = join($packs_path_dst, ' ')
  run_command("st2 pack register ${packs_path_dst_str}", $nodes)

  # refresh virtualenvs
  $packs_name = $packs_data.map |$p| {$p['name']}
  $packs_name_str = to_json($packs_name)
  run_command("st2 run packs.setup_virtualenv update=true packs='${packs_name_str}'", $nodes)

For copying the code we again utilize an apply block with a file resource to copy the pack's code from /opt/encore/stackstorm/packs/* to /opt/stackstorm/packs. Next we run the st2 pack register command to load all of the Pack information from the filesystem into the StackStorm database. Finally we run the st2 run packs.setup_virtualenv action to create a Python virtualenv for each pack.

Try Deploying an Application with Bolt Yourself

Bolt is an amazing tool with a ton of use cases. In this post we've demonstrated how the DevOps team at Encore Technologies utilizes Bolt to package and deploy our automation code to StackStorm hosts. If you're inspired by what you've seen here you can get started with Bolt by checking out the documentation.

Sometimes documentation doesn't answer all of your questions, or maybe you just need to talk to a real person, in this case come visit the Puppet Slack. We'll be hanging out in the #bolt channel.



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